My YFZ won't start. com are genuine Kawasaki parts. Suzuki make some of the best performing, longest lasting vehicles on and off the road. 07 kawasaki mule wont turn over. To check to see if the stator is bad is to take the jet ski out of the water and turn it on for a few seconds and test the voltage of the battery. I have a 1993 Mule 2510. KAWASAKI MULE 3010 TRANS 4X4 - SERVICE MANUAL- English Service Manual to UTV Kawasaki Mule 3010 Trans 4x4. 2006 bombardier outlander 800 wont start no start eng warning light; Honda Foreman Troubleshooting turns over will not fire;. - Answered by a verified Motorcycle Mechanic. I changed the radiator fan on my kawasaki mule now it wont start? It does nothing when i turn the key over. even with new starter and new ignition switch battery is new and connections are good. At the key switch when in the on position, the circuit is completed and then goes back thru the machine harness, again thru the engine harness now in a red wire, and connects to the battery positive cable on the start solenoid. Got a jump again and it started but now won't crank again. Here's what I know. If you're willing, it can be an easy fix that you can do yourself. 1998 Kawasaki 1100 STX won't start doesn't turn over If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. Turned it off to go in a store, came out an hour later - dead battery. Choose Kawasaki from the listed OE manufactures. I started following this thread and other starting problem threads when Sunday night I couldn't get my car to turn over. If that does not fix it I would pull the carb and rebuild it. I have been working on it for a few hours and have gone through most of the trouble shooting ideas I can think of. Try tapping on the side of the carb with a small hammer, TAP, DO NOT BEAT HARD. She has a Kohler 8 hp engine. bike has been sitting, wont start, just clicks My bike has been sitting over the past month or so, on a battery tender, so the battery is good. Symptoms of a Bad or Failing Starter Relay you to shut the vehicle off when you turn the key off. Kawasaki Fuel Pump: If your Kawasaki small engine isn't starting or if you're having problems keeping it running, the fuel pump may be the problem. The recall involves 2015, 2016 and 2017 model year side-by-side recreational off-highway vehicles. ok, ive tried everything. i can keep it running for a little while playing with the choke, but after a little while of doing that it will die. 2006 Scag SST 61 turf tiger Kawasaki 29 DFI wiring harness I bought this mower as a project as it had electrical issues and the previous owner didn't want to fix. Why won't the kawasaki mule 550. put everything back together and it ran. When I mow my lawn she will quit for a second and then I can usually start her right back up. Make sure you do not have any clothing or body parts hanging into the engine bay as it starts or turns over. Suzuki make some of the best performing, longest lasting vehicles on and off the road. Any advise would be helpful. it turns over but it wont start. "ATV" service and repair manuals. It would occasionally have hard starts, but nothing major. Also for: Mule 4010 4x4, Mule 4000, Mule 4010 4×4 2011, Mule 4010 trans 4x4. We are selling because we no longer use it. Our 6x4 with the kawasaki will periodically have the spark plug wire unplugged for the back cylinder by trash. I have a 1998 Kawasaki 900 stx jet ski that will not turn over I have power and it will start with starting fluid but wont stay running any solutions please help. You can also Narrow by Brands, type, power source and Categories or pick one of our kawasaki mule gas cap feature picks. Soap box: Electronic pulsed fuel injections systems are complex and are not a topic for back-yard mechanics. Major power and commercial-grade strength are on tap from the Kawasaki FX Series engines. I have a 1993 Mule 2510. Turned it off to go in a store, came out an hour later - dead battery. New battery, new cables, but more recently it has started having some starting issues where if I drove it to the gas station and filled the tank and then got back in to start it, it would crank very slow. Next turn the key switch into the "ON" position on wait for the bike to finish its starting sequence. when turning keyswitch. 2004 HPX 4x4 wont start and when i went to start it, it turned over for a second and then instantly died. A Kawasaki lawnmower engine that backfires on start-up has a problem with fuel delivery through the idle jet. Re: 05 K1200LT Won't Turn Over Thanks Scott, I have removed, cleaned and connected all the cables + & - I thought it was a bad battery from the start and the bike acts the same with a new battery that is connected to a new large deep cycle via jumper cables with clean and tightly connected cables. Trending price is based on prices over last 90 days. blinkers and taillights enough so that my starter would turn over but not fast enough to start the engine. The recalled models are 4-wheel side-by-side seating for three to six people and automotive style controls. Then try putting the Mule into gear and stepping on the brake and see if it starts. My problem is that the bike won't start unless I spray starter fluid into the carb (or the choke orifice). However, our choke is on the dash panel just left of the steering wheel. my '06 1000 has had the "click" for about a year now. When you're looking for power for your mower or heavy duty industrial and construction equipment, you'll find it here. Small amount of oil carbon on. John Deere Diesel Tractor Turns Over But Wont Start. Kawasaki Mule Gas Cap. turned off tried again and it just clicked again. Kawasaki ATV and Mule. A starter motor (that thing that makes the noise when you push the START button) is just making the engine turn as the spark plug fires to start the engine. It doesn't even whine. I have come to own a Kawasaki Mule 2510 that my grandfather had. the voltage is showing 12. Any help would be appreciated !!. X pattern means alternating bolts so that the bowl is tightened evenly over the seal area. In this 5 minute video John shows you some quick troubleshooting to try when you’re ATV won’t start. Bongripper, I don't think he meant to start your bike each time by putting the jumper cables to the starter! Just check the starter this way to see if its good. If the engine won't start, remember that attempting to turn it over for too long can kill the battery and damage the starter. There are always questions posted about how to cure hard starting, hot or cold. Kawasaki VOLTAGE REGULATOR. 7-13 volts depending on type, if it is under 12. done the same thing through two batteries. ©2019 Kawasaki Motors Corp. -last thing - I replaced solenoid due to old one clicking; I HAVE to be charging the battery or it won't start/turn over - battery just goes dead; but if charging, it'll turn over nicely; i'm guessing it's a bad battery-any help appreciated - I've never owned an ATV before - inherited this beast from grandparent in-law. So at this point I'm guessing I need a PDM. I'll start the car up and it runs just fine, no problems. Be sure the carburetor is perfectly vertical! 6. If one of those works but the other doesn't, start by checking the switches themselves, then check the relays. The starter clicked a single time when I turned the key, and the lights on the radio came on, but nothing else happened. The ground wire, right where it attaches to the battery, is getting very warm (even hot) ONLY while I crank it over. The battery is producing a little over 12v and the starter is working. If the crankshaft still won't turn, the piston(s) may be rusted or seized to the cylinder walls. Kawasaki KAF540 Mule 2010 2020 2030 Manual. It is released by Alice Ferreira in the best field. It cranks, but that's it. If that does not fix it I would pull the carb and rebuild it. At times, your golf cart may seem to have a mind of its own and will cause you problems with either a lack of power or sometimes the complete opposite-it seems to want to […]. I have come to own a Kawasaki Mule 2510 that my grandfather had. I have a 2006 Arctic Cat Prowler 650 H1 red in color. It was the worst during the snow, though some of the wet periods were bad too. We also suggest using a Fuel Stabilizer to help prevent fuel system problems. The 2014 Kawasaki Mule 4010 4x4 is a practical four wheel drive vehicle that can deal great with a wide range of tough jobs. Major power and commercial-grade strength are on tap from the Kawasaki FX Series engines. That is, put the transmission in neutral and don't touch the brake and see if it starts. It's not the turn-over sensor. Got a jump and it started. It is possible that the mainshaft gears and the clutch are locked up but usually it is the pistons. The problem seems to be centered around the kill solenoid. Click on Shop Parts, or select the kind of product you're working with on the left and we'll help you find the right part. I've crossed the starter over, it'll spin, but the bending won't kick in. Battery is charged, starter is engaging but the engine still won't turn over, Anyone have any ideas. 1998 Kawasaki 1100 STX won't start doesn't turn over If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. Kawasaki Diagnostics Quick Start Guide Connect SBT Diagnostic System to the PC with the provided USB Cord. Diagnosing Light-Duty Diesels Download PDF. (KHI) engineering knowledge. ©2019 Kawasaki Motors Corp. com are genuine Kawasaki parts. 1999 kawasaki mule 2510 will turn over but won't start 1999 kawasaki mule 2510 will turn over but won't - kawasaki 2005 Mule 3010 4x4 question. To check to see if the stator is bad is to take the jet ski out of the water and turn it on for a few seconds and test the voltage of the battery. I changed the radiator fan on my kawasaki mule now it wont start? It does nothing when i turn the key over. Make sure you do not have any clothing or body parts hanging into the engine bay as it starts or turns over. Kawasaki Fuel Pumps & Diaphragms. But about 50% of the time when you turn the key, you can hear (and feel) the solenoid moving in the starter motor, but the motor itself fails to turn, so it does not start. About three years ago the fellow I bought it from finished using it one day, turned it off, let it cool down, hosed the tractor down and then it would not start. How to Test the Ignition System on a Kawasaki Mule 550 then turn the dial to measure DC voltage. But run it a few minutes or run it down 1. A starter motor (that thing that makes the noise when you push the START button) is just making the engine turn as the spark plug fires to start the engine. Then it started happening again a month or so later. i can keep it running for a little while playing with the choke, but after a little while of doing that it will die. Any thoughts? Oh , I also checked the fuses. Another type of backfire that can occur in a 23 HP Kawasaki engine is caused by having a poorly tuned carburetor. Re: Spark, fuel & compression but won't start The compression is the problem. spark, gas, compression, but still won't start, what next?? the saw. Lights work, no blown fuses. Everything was running fine put it up one night, went out the next morning was a little harder to start (normally fires right up said it kind of sputtered) road it around a little and then parked it went back later and it will not start turn over but will not start. A fully charged battery should be around 12. About 2 hours later I tried to leave and it wouldn't start. 2004 Honda ST1300-the current mule. kawasaki mule 610 wont turn over. my kawasaki mule wont start any ideas? what do you think of the mule I would kick my mule in the Nutz and he would start with no problems. It started a couple of times afterward (after many failed attempts, but now does nothing. Locate which kawasaki mule gas cap fits you best. "ATV" service and repair manuals. Find the correct Kawasaki replacement fuel pump you need below. BrochureThis model comes with 36 month factory limited. It would occasionally have hard starts, but nothing major. bike has been sitting, wont start, just clicks My bike has been sitting over the past month or so, on a battery tender, so the battery is good. 1985 Kawasaki 454 LTD - A single click when trying to start it won't start. Got a jump and it started. Note: On Briggs & Stratton 8-22 HP engines, the seat is brass and pressed into the carburetor. Under the slogan of 'For Earth, For Life,' Kubota works on challenges in the fields of food, water, and the environment on a global scale. Mule 4010 Trans 4x4 Utility Vehicle pdf manual download. I have NO idea what it is. Browse the most popular brands and models at the best prices on Machinery Pete. But I'm a $250 tow ride away from a shop. That is, put the transmission in neutral and don't touch the brake and see if it starts. Insert the carburetor back into the carburetor flange on the motor. This unit has been setting for a while and currently will not crank. Kawasaki Mule 4010 Trans 4x4 Utility Vehicle Owner's manual. 5 miles or so to the mailbox and if it dies, it won't start for 10-20 minutes. This compact workhorse is equipped with a spacious rear cargo bed which. Why does my2001 kawasaki vulcan 800 classic turns over but will not There could be many reasons why a Kawasaki 650 jet ski won't start, but still clicks. Well, I just got done doing some winter mods, including a RS bumper, new brakes, new top, center console w/ guages, etc. Start Right Here Find appliance parts, lawn & garden equipment parts, heating & cooling parts and more from the top brands in the industry here. ATV service and repair manuals. Next turn the key switch into the "ON" position on wait for the bike to finish its starting sequence. Having problems with starting. I can see by the clear fuel filter it has gas. Kawasaki ZXI 1100 No Electrical Power HELP!! A minute later I went to hit the start button and nothing. even with new starter and new ignition switch battery is new and connections are good. I have noted that when you turn on the ignition the kill solenoid pulls back as you would expect. MULE models. Buy New Starter For Kawasaki 2001-2011 KAF620 Mule 3000 3010 3020 4010 617CC, Suzuki QUV620F 620cc 2005 21163-2124 21163-6010, K2116-32124: Starters - Amazon. While a belt failure doesn't often damage other components, there are instances where the belt can wad up and cause damage to either the belt housing, the clutches, or the output shaft seals. This compact workhorse is equipped with a spacious rear cargo bed which. Before you go out and buy a new battery, read this. 6V on the voyageur and it turns over slow. It just spins when it sees 12 volts and thats it. Sounds fine when it runs but is very sluggish, wont start worth a darn. Several hours later, I attempted to start the truck again, and it started just fine. My starter clicks, my VW won't start just clicks, Click problem with starter, Clicking problem with starter, replaced starter but did not fix the click problem, my Volkswagen starter just clicks. If it still won’t run properly, take the Vulcan 800 in for repairs. (KHI) engineering knowledge. kawasaki mule head. it ran fine then all of a sudden that changed. I have replaced gas, plugs, battery, wires, electronic ignition. so i replaced my petcock, which was just pouring gas into my carbs nonstop. It started a couple of times afterward (after many failed attempts, but now does nothing. Ran out of fuel on Saturday, now it will turn over but won't start. My engine just won't start, I have checked everything I know of. Kawasaki Mule 610 4X4 Xc Motorcycles For Sale: 0 Motorcycles Near You - Find Used Kawasaki Mule 610 4X4 Xc Motorcycles on Cycle Trader. JD110 Won't turn over husqvarna vs john deere dead battery keep blowing 20amp fuse on 1990 jd tractor 2130 won't start in hot weather once engine is warm JD 5203 rear SCV's question 318 fuel priming? John Deere 110 lx279 johndeer need upper and lower hood and bumper 870 died while shredding 4230 JD 430 diesel lawn tractor 265 clutch. After driving for about 20 minutes, the engine will die while driving, and will not start back up until the next day. You search Auto repair manual PDF kawasaki mule 610 wont turn over, if there are search results will appear below. My battery won't hold charge in one car but it will in another. done the same thing through two batteries. Dead Battery? Maybe so. A Kawasaki lawnmower engine that backfires on start-up has a problem with fuel delivery through the idle jet. Durability and warranty is my deciding factor. Everything was running fine put it up one night, went out the next morning was a little harder to start (normally fires right up said it kind of sputtered) road it around a little and then parked it went back later and it will not start turn over but will not start. At times, your golf cart may seem to have a mind of its own and will cause you problems with either a lack of power or sometimes the complete opposite-it seems to want to […]. This unit has been setting for a while and currently will not crank. When it cold she will start right up. Here is RepairPal's simple guide to help you figure out why your key won't turn in the ignition. It is released by Alice Ferreira in the best field. it turns over but it wont start. The mower will turn over It has spark on both cylinders It’s has 150 lbs compression on both cylinders. It hasnt been run in a while. 8 Restart the engine. my '06 1000 has had the "click" for about a year now. I have spark and I have fuel, I have measured all my sensors and checked the cam chain position and its all ok. I hope this article helps to better equip you for how to follow up and take action the next time your Jet Ski wont start up. 2006 bombardier outlander 800 wont start no start eng warning light; Honda Foreman Troubleshooting turns over will not fire;. 2006 bombardier outlander 800 wont start no start eng warning light; Honda Foreman Troubleshooting turns over will not fire;. In this video, I show how to diagnose and fix a Kawasaki Bayou 300 that will not start. The ground wire, right where it attaches to the battery, is getting very warm (even hot) ONLY while I crank it over. I started following this thread and other starting problem threads when Sunday night I couldn't get my car to turn over. If it is in the OFF position, switch it to ON for regular operation. You search Auto repair manual PDF kawasaki mule 610 wont turn over, if there are search results will appear below. also wont run when. Start Over Close. KFX won't do anything when key is turned Also make sure the start/stop switch is turned ONsee picture below. 1998 Kawasaki 1100 STX won't start doesn't turn over If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. It is about three years old but has low hours (42). When you start your lawn mower or small engine, you turn the flywheel and its magnets pass the coil (or armature). need to go somewhere and your car won't start, it's not. OEM is an acronym for original equipment manufacturer, which means that the 2007 Kawasaki MULE 610 4X4 KAF400A OEM parts offered at BikeBandit. If the engine spins over too freely when it's hot. This unit has been setting for a while and currently will not crank. From your description, our Mule is not nearly as hard to start as your Gator was, but it is certainly less than optimum. It doesn't even whine. Kawaski Mule 610 won't start. Kawasaki Motorcycle. My engine just won't start, I have checked everything I know of. it was a very simple procedure. The most common cause of clicking when the car is being started is a low battery. Don't know how long it's been sitting,but was told by dealer that it runs although when I went to look at it the starter solenoid was broken due to over tightening one of the posts,so it wouldn't start. Kawasaki Mule - SOLVED! Mule 4010 Fuel Injection Idle problems - running rich - After a year of my 2010 Mule idling terrible and engine dying when I let off the pedal at idle, I finally got serious about fixing the problem. Got a jump and it started. Over the years the Kawasaki Mule has been a solid performer and countless construction workers, farmers and hunters have put the Mule to the test. This is a 2011 Kawasaki Mule 4010. I have noted that when you turn on the ignition the kill solenoid pulls back as you would expect. This is the same manual UTV dealerships use to repair your ulitilty vehicle. It has sat for a while. If one of those works but the other doesn't, start by checking the switches themselves, then check the relays. By continuing to use this site you consent to the use of cookies on your device as described in our cookie policy unless you have disabled them. The Kawasaki MULE™ side x side is an off- highway vehicle only, and is not designed, equipped or manufactured for use on public streets, roads or highways. It has sat for a while. We acquired about the ten greatest kawasaki mule gas caps over the latter 3 years. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. 5 miles or so to the mailbox and if it dies, it won't start for 10-20 minutes. Kawasaki Mule Tires Duro 31-K96810-2311B DI L/H Switch Kawasaki 300 Bayou KLF300 Light Kill Start 1988. Ihave a kawasaki mule that wont start - Answered by a verified Motorcycle Mechanic We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on our website. Kawaski Mule 610 won't start. My 2-3 year old Teryx 4 is not starting. In this video, I show how to diagnose and fix a Kawasaki Bayou 300 that will not start. 2010) And will turn over and everything but wont start. Sometimes, too much fuel is delivered to the combustion cylinders for a given amount of air. For small engine repair that requires Replacement Kawasaki parts, we are your best bet online. The red FI light on the dash will now start to "blink" out the codes. Troubleshooting/repairing a Kawasaki Bayou KLF300 ATV Electrical Charging System: These bikes are cool and virtually bullet proof. These batteries are manufactured under the highest standards, and are sure to out-perform any replacement batteries available. Diagnosing Light-Duty Diesels Download PDF. Try tapping on the side of the carb with a small hammer, TAP, DO NOT BEAT HARD. on the gas side open up your needles about 2 turns pull choke and set throttle lock, if after. 700ish CC IIRC. Kawasaki Motorcycle Forums forums. 29/06/2013 · Have 2006 Kawasaki mule 610 ATV. Kawasaki Mule 2510 lean run condition This engine is a new one to me, but an engine is an engine! FD620D engine with 808hrs. I would keep looking, the Polaris Ranger is a much better machine. I have replaced gas, plugs, battery, wires, electronic ignition. To enter Dealer Mode 1 simply ground the self diagnosis lead continuously on the Battery Negative (-) Terminal. This morning I got in my car (Mk3 Golf) and went to start it. Kawasaki has a three-year warranty. 2000-2002 zx6/zx6r speedometer/tachometer wiring - KawiForums 2000-2002 zx6/zx6r speedometer/tachometer wiring - KawiForums - Kawasaki Motorcycle Forums. I recently bought a John Deere 170 lawn tractor with a Kawasaki FC420V engine from the original owner in non-running condition. Here is RepairPal's simple guide to help you figure out why your key won't turn in the ignition. i've got a 95' mule 2510 4x4. At first the truck did not start. Re: Spark, fuel & compression but won't start Right, if you say for a fact that it's sparking and there's fuel in the chamber then it should run. it ran fine and then up and wouldn't start, not turning over, the only noise is a clicking. Have replaced the battery, starter, and coil. No I don't believe I have spark, if I did it would start! Turns over like it does every day. Tried light switch (push button) with key on and off and no lights either. A starter motor (that thing that makes the noise when you push the START button) is just making the engine turn as the spark plug fires to start the engine. Obey the laws and regulations that control the use of your vehicle. I turn the key and nothing, no clicking, dimming of lights, nothing. This creates a spark. Any thoughts? Oh , I also checked the fuses. I tried hitting it with a rubber mallet (this worked with my car a few times) but nothing. even with new starter and new ignition switch battery is new and connections are good. "ATV" service and repair manuals. Kawasaki 360 won't turn over /start. Re: Spark, fuel & compression but won't start The compression is the problem. I have 2 customers that i know of that there units starter solenoid clicks but engages the ring gear intermittently when one keeps turning start switch to crank the engine to start and run. I have a friend who owns a Kawasaki Mule (gasoline model, carburetor). Thats where I step in. On some sport machines we have to turn the simple left turn into a figure eight or a three-point turn. Kawasaki ATV and Mule. I have a 2000 Chevy S10 (4-cylinder, rear wheel drive, the most basic model). can some help me please it's doing my head in ive looked for it shorting out. Questions and Answers. To check to see if the stator is bad is to take the jet ski out of the water and turn it on for a few seconds and test the voltage of the battery. I have noted that when you turn on the ignition the kill solenoid pulls back as you would expect. I've replaced the plastic choke plunger with a steel one from Stead Engineering and cleaned out all orifices especially the ones leading to the choke, but it still won't start cold without starter. new starter silenoid, relays, new spark plug. took out starter and bench tested it, seemed to work fine. Makes no sounds/clicks,etc. Kawasaki Mule 4010 Trans 4x4 Utility Vehicle Owner's manual. It hasnt been run in a while. Well, now it won't start at all. About 2 hours later I tried to leave and it wouldn't start. But this time she won't start. If you find that your jet ski battery won’t stay charged then it’s a good chance something is draining it or the Stator has stopped charging. The engine starts fine when it is cold. I guess they name it mule because she sure can be stubborn! I know she is old but I like the old gal. The following morning, cup of coffee in hand, you press the start button and the engine won't start. Tried light switch (push button) with key on and off and no lights either. buy parts for seeing as it is just a kawasaki Mule. - If I jump the starter, motor will run as long as starter is engaged Now it turns over but it won't start even. 2014 kawasaki mule 610 wet clutch. It started a couple of times afterward (after many failed attempts, but now does nothing. Find used Kawasaki atvs and utility vehicles for sale near you. Untill now you had to either do expensive repairs to the Kawasaki 2510. Aug 25, 2014 · my 91 650sx won't turn over but instead when I hit the start button just sits there and clicks, it seems like the starter is not engaging and I was wondering if anyone has run into this problem before. The Mule is almost impossible to start without using the enrichment device and as we generally only ride it from the house to the horse barn (a distance of about 1500 feet) it never gets really warmed up. It has an interior fan and exterior lights that were added. It was stuck in the mud and rocked back and forth but stuck so bad it had to be towed out. Turn the key, the relay clicks, and nothing. 2 new batteries, a brand new charger/tender, and a rewound stator. At the key switch when in the on position, the circuit is completed and then goes back thru the machine harness, again thru the engine harness now in a red wire, and connects to the battery positive cable on the start solenoid. The engine won't crank. My issue w. I don't think it would start and run though without good power to the PDM. Let it sit for a few minutes, then check the oil to see if there's any water in it (it will look like a white milky substance if there is water mixed with the oil). I have been working on it for a few hours and have gone through most of the trouble shooting ideas I can think of. my kawasaki mule wont start any ideas? what do you think of the mule I would kick my mule in the Nutz and he would start with no problems. Due to the slight time delay (1-3 seconds) inherent in live online bidding, it is not uncommon for the Auctioneer to recognize a live floor bidder over an online bidder if both bids are placed simultaneously. I have 2 customers that i know of that there units starter solenoid clicks but engages the ring gear intermittently when one keeps turning start switch to crank the engine to start and run. It suddenly quit and now will turn over fine but won't start. Here's what I know. "ATV" service and repair manuals. I have a friend who owns a Kawasaki Mule (gasoline model, carburetor). It's diesel powered with power steering and an enclosed cab. Offroad Rear View Side Mirror for UTV (Pack of 2) For 1. Starter cranks, but no start. You can also Narrow by Brands, type, power source and Categories or pick one of our kawasaki mule gas cap feature picks. It is not a speed demon but has lots of pull. If search results do not exist, please search by others keyword. Then it started happening again a month or so later. Then try putting the Mule into gear and stepping on the brake and see if it starts.